A study published in May 2015 by PURE suggests that measurement of grip strength is a simple, inexpensive risk-stratifying method for all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and cardiovascular disease.
From an article at Forbes:
A large global study finds that grip strength is a simple, powerful, and broadly applicable test that can help predict the risk of death and cardiovascular disease. The new findings from the Prospective Urban-Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study were based on data from nearly 140,000 adults in 17 countries. The study participants had their grip strength measured with a handgrip dynamometer and were followed for roughly 4 years.
According to the study by Leong, et al., "Grip strength was a stronger predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than systolic blood pressure."